Supplements build on the foundation of proper food intake. Before applying supplementation, the basics of performance eating should be addressed. For example, consuming protein from food sources is better than taking a protein powder. Once you have assembled the food menu, you can create a supplement program to compliment it. Your weight gain, loss or athletic goals and calorie requirements will dictate exactly what type of diet and supplement program to recommend. While there have been many sports supplements which have caused sensations down through the years, but failed to live up to the hype. Boron was a great testosterone booster that did very little. Vanadyl sulfate was an insulin mimicker. Arginine and Ornithine were touted as growth hormone elevators. All of these have fallen by the wayside to be replaced by creatine, DHEA and caffeine, which have withstood the test of time. And protein powder is still the greatest anabolic supplement ever discovered. They should make up the core ingredients of any supplement stack. It is a popular myth that the average diet provides all the Vitamins and minerals necessary for good health. Modern farming techniques allow farmers to grow crops by adding only two minerals to the ground, potassium nitrate and calcium. Since there are about fifty known vitamins and minerals, it is unlikely that your client is getting the nutrients they need out of the coffee and donut they had for breakfast (if they even eat breakfast), Big Mac, fries and coke for lunch, or the pizza and beer for dinner. Your job is to make sure you’re aware of the need for supplementation to increase their performance. It starts with a good multiple vitamin-mineral every day, a must.
Studies have shown that when a person eats or consumes a supplement is just as important to athletic performance as what they eat. Eating late at night causes calories to be stored as fat, while eating early does not. The rule of thumb for food and calorie intake is to eat for the activity that follows the meal. Sleep is a period of energy storage that requires very little food, while intense weight training may burn 500 calories an hour, so the heaviest meal should be consumed prior to training. How long the person should wait after eating to train is up to the individual. The period could be as long as three hour or as little as thirty minutes. Some trainees consume high calorie sports drinks during the training session. That optimizes energy levels and enhances training intensity. The pre-workout meal should be about 30-40 grams of protein and at least 100- 150 grams of various kinds of carbohydrates (depending on goals, gender and body weight). Creatine, DHEA, desiccated liver, glutamine, amino acids, vitamin/minerals, and/or caffeine should also be taken at that point. The post training meal should always be eaten within an hour of the end of the workout, along with another dose of muscle building supplements and vitamins, because blood flow is altered away from the organs and toward the muscles (target tissue) for about an hour after training. Protein at this meal should be 30-50 grams and carbohydrate should be 100-200 grams (again, depending on goals, gender and body weight). A liquid weight gain supplement is an ideal meal after training because it is assimilated quickly. Calories are burned at a higher rate even while resting, after weight training, for up to eight hours. Protein synthesis (building) stops during training so that amino acids build up in the blood stream ready to repair muscle after the workout. By continuing to add to the supply, muscle repair and building are optimized. No residual fat burning effect has been observed after aerobic activity. A greater fat burning effect has been noted in those who do their aerobic component training in the morning on an empty stomach. Training with weights will be hindered if done on an empty stomach first thing in the morning and intensity levels will drop dramatically, defeating the purpose of weight training.

Liquid amino acids are complete, predigested protein. Amino acid pills are not as effective as liquid formulas and you will be disappointed with results from pills. Liquid amino acids are remarkable in their ability to help transform the pre-contest bodybuilder's physique. It is during low carbohydrate and calorie periods that extra, quickly digested protein sources are crucial. One drawback is that many of the formulas taste terrible, but for those committed to excellence, recommend an amino acid liquid drink right before, during and immediately after training. You will be amazed at the results.
You may have heard about research reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that points to the amino acid homocysteine as a contributing factor in heart disease. Since it is a common component of protein, elevated protein intake may increase the risk of developing heart disease. Other studies seem to show that heightened homocysteine levels are the result of heart disease rather than a precursor. Since the data is still inconclusive, you must use your best judgment about this fact. Elevated protein levels may cause additional strain on the kidneys as well. If have a history of kidney disease then a high protein diet is out of the question. Dr. Dean Ornish, a well known LA cardiologist and author of the popular book "Reversing Heart Disease," noticed a cessation and reversal of heart disease symptoms after putting heart patients on a diet that included no more than 10- 15% of the calories from fat. Protein intake was kept at normal levels (15% of total calories). Dr. Ornish made no concern about a possible relationship between a high protein diet and heart disease.
Glutamine is the main amino acid found in muscle tissue. The thinking has been that taking extra glutamine will help increase muscle mass, but this has not been the case. Creatine is a much better blend for adding muscle size and strength. You can try Glutamine, but you may be disappointed with the results.
Arginine and Ornithine were touted as great growth hormone boosters in the eighties, but never lived up to the hype. There are still supplements advertised as GH stimulators, but none of them work very well. They are quite expensive, and if they produce any results at all, it is probably a placebo effect. You should steer away from them.